Ventricular assist devices are becoming more commonly used. If temporary, the pump and controller may be outside the patient. More long term left ventricular assist devices may be implanted with a small pump in a peritoneal or abdominal wall pocket with external control and power.
Left ventricular assist devices (LVAD) have an inflow cannula place at the cardiac apex and an outflow cannula place in the aorta.
Right ventricular assist devices (RVAD) obtain inflow via the right atrium/atrial appendage and supply outflow via the pulmonary arterial tree (main pulmonary artery or right pulmonary artery).
Biventricular assist devices (BiVAD) require both sets of cannulae.
Below is an example of biventricular assist cannulae (short arrows) in use. The remaining tubes that can be seen are chest and mediastinal drains (short arrows, note the side holes indicated by the breaks in the radio-opaque markings) and an endotracheal tube (not labelled).